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Τίτλος:The puzzle of energy security in a decarbonized world
Κύρια Υπευθυνότητα:Αποστόλου, Νικόλαος Α.
Επιβλέπων:Δημαδάμα, Ζέφη
Keywords:Energy security, puzzle, decarbonisation, renewables, fossil fuels, multicriteria decision making, MCDM, TOTEX, small modular reactors, active citizens, energy democracy, sustainability, statistics, UN development goal
Ημερομηνία Έκδοσης:2021
Εκδότης:Πάντειο Πανεπιστήμιο Κοινωνικών και Πολιτικών Επιστημών
Abstract:In this thesis, I study the energy security in the world moving to decarbonisation under specific pledges and agreements. Decarbonisation is considered by definition the net zero carbon emissions. Ensuring energy security is by default a puzzle since it covers multiple dimensions and depends on multiple factors. Energy security is linked to political, economical, environmental and social factors. The definition of energy security is not unique. Energy security is being understood, conceptualized and defined in different ways from region to region and from country to country. In bibliography and other sources, there are different keywords that play a crucial role in energy security definition and the approach followed to ensure this. I have identified the four As: availability, affordability, accessibility, acceptability. In addition, I present the existence of the four Rs: review, reduction, replacement, restriction. Moreover, I comment on the existence of the four Ds: decarbonisation, decentralization, digitalization, democratization but also on the four Is: innovation, infrastructure, implementation and integration. I thoroughly explain, analyse and discuss the role of these letters in energy security. Scientists and analysts distinguish energy security between short-term and long-term. Short-term energy security is considered the prompt reaction to shocks in supply-demand balance. It is also the availability and low cost of fossil technologies alongside the fuel subsidies. Long-term energy security is considered the investments in energy supply in relation to economic developments and environmental needs. It is also a national security issue with energy efficiency, power grids improvements, digitalization, funding tools, citizens inclusiveness and societal acceptability. I continue by presenting the statistics that reveal energy security in the world. This is based on figures and visualizations for fossil fuel subsidies alongside energy resource utilization and consumption, provided by international research institutes and governmental authorities. I present the amount of different energy sources exploited in world. I also attach maps of energy production and consumption in different regions and countries of the world. In addition, I present pies of estimated energy demand mix and power generation energy mix for the countries being the “biggest players” in energy sector. The subsidies of fossil fuels may support short-term energy security but of course undermine long-term energy security and the decarbonisation. Each country has different energy demands and of course different capabilities in exploiting different energy resources, based on the size of population, GDP per capita, economic activities and access to energy resources. These factors determine energy security. I proceed by presenting the state of play for energy security in the world, based on a quantified review of World Energy Council. I present the top 10 countries as best performers and improvers in energy security. Besides, I comment on each region and countries of it in regard to energy security and by what means they are trying to achieve this while trying to move to decarbonisation. In summary, I realized that most European and Asian countries do not have adequate natural energy resources and are dependent on imports. On the contrary, countries like Saudi Arabia and Russia do not depend on imports but they still depend a lot on fossil fuels exploitation. Nowadays, the global energy sector is facing a remarkable change, as a lot of countries try hard to decarbonise and form a decisive energy transition, while trying to recover from the economic shocks and the pandemic. An increasing number of countries have already set net zero carbon emission targets. Energy policies and regulations tend to hold the market changes, but occasionally move forward reframing energy markets and enabling new technologies and business models. It looks that the challenges and opportunities presented by post-pandemic recovery will redefine energy policies and energy security agenda. For a thorough study on a regional or local level I have found that there are many mathematical tools that can help policymakers and scientists working on energy security. Out of these, the multiple criteria decision making tools are commonly used due to the multiple dependent factors and their superiority over other tools. For the reasons of energy security, we need more resilient and flexible energy systems, with innovative financing and investment models and legally binding long-term contracts and partnerships. One solution I present is following a total expenditure (TOTEX) approach. Besides, the digitalization of energy sector will facilitate the wide utilization of renewable resources and decarbonisation. The main element for this is smart grids. Along with the increasing use of RES, energy efficient focusing on buildings and bulk, long-term energy storage are crucial. Besides, the production and utilization of hydrogen produced by renewable for long-distance transportation and where electrification is not possible have a crucial role. In the view of not succeeding having net zero carbon emissions, the artificial capture of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other carbon gases is a solution, along with the advancement of forestation. In contributing to energy security, smart modular nuclear reactors are coming as a safe nuclear power, being considered as green technology. Decisions with citizens and a bottom-up approach will be needed. Better regulations and market transparency is needed for energy security. Otherwise, we risk falling in top-bottom decisions excluding society. Solutions at local level can secure energy sector. This can be achieved with active energy citizen. Energy security is beyond a matter of definition. It is a matter of studying the right criteria that determine a territory, the applied policies, including societies and active citizens.
Περιγραφή:Διπλωματική εργασία - Πάντειο Πανεπιστήμιο. Τμήμα Διεθνών, Ευρωπαϊκών και Περιφερειακών Σπουδών, ΠΜΣ, κατεύθυνση Δίκαιο και Πολιτική για το Περιβάλλον και την Ενέργεια, 2021
Περιγραφή:Βιβλιογραφία: σ. 78-81
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