Το διεθνές, κοινοτικό και εθνικό κανονιστικό πλαίσιο για τους γενετικά τροποποιημένους οργανισμούς (ΓΤΟ): περιγραφή και διαπλοκή των κανονιστικών συστημάτων
Βιοτεχνολογία -- Δίκαιο και νομοθεσία Γενετική μηχανική -- Δίκαιο και νομοθεσία Biotechnology -- Law and legislation Genetic engineering -- Law and legislation
Πάντειο Πανεπιστήμιο Κοινωνικών και Πολιτικών Επιστημών
The risks and appropriate regulation of GMOs are currently a matter of intense domestic and international controversy. Proponents of the new agricultural biotechnologies argue that they will provide significant consumer, economic, and environmental benefits while critics point out the uncertainties surrounding the impacts of the new technologies, maintaining that they present potentially serious health and environmental risks. But even though it has been used for twenty-five years and has periodically been subjected to scrutiny and risk evaluation, there is no evidence that harm has resulted from the use of modern biotechnology.Precisely, for this reason, the EU has enacted a special legislative framework (mainly Directive 2001/18/EC and Regulations 1829/2003/EC and 1830/2003/EC), which is based on the precautionary principle, which could be interpreted as “if you are not sure of the consequences, do not proceed”. In terms of safety assessment, the EU has adopted a process-oriented regulatory approach, emphasizing formal authorization following a case-by-case risk assessment. This approach is usually distinguished from the product-oriented system adopted in the USA, where the focus is on the intended use of the end product rather than on the technology used to create it. More generally, this difference in the regulatory cultures of the USA and the EU leads to different responses to the introduction of GMOs in the respective countries. EU appears to ask the question “why”, whereas the USA asks the question “why not?”.In January 2000, the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to the Convention on Biological Diversity (BSP), was adopted. The aim of the BSP is to contribute to ensuring an adequate level of protection in the field of safe transfer, handling and use of Living Modified Organisms (LMOs), specifically focusing on transboundary movements. In order to do this, the BSP introduces an advance informed agreeement procedure (AIA), based on a precautionary approach, for the transboundary movement of certain LMOs.Aim of this project is firstly to present the international, european and national regulatory framework for the GMOs and secondly to point out their interaction.
Διπλωματική εργασία - Πάντειο Πανεπιστήμιο. Γενικό Τμήμα Δικαίου, ΠΜΣ "Δίκαιο και Ευρωπαϊκή Ενοποίηση", κατεύθυνση Ποινικό Δίκαιο και Θεωρία του Δικαίου, 2009